Suntan How are Ceramic Capacitors constructed? Part 1

Dipped Ceramic Capacitors. The simplest ceramic capacitor consists of a square or circular shaped

ceramic with electrodes attached (see figure). The capacitance is given by where A is the area of the two plates, is the dielectric permittivity of vacuum, Kd is the dielectric's dielectric constant and d is the distance between the two plates.

Suntan Construction details of a wet aluminum electrolytic capacitor - Production process

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are comprised of anode and cathode plates separated by an absorbent spacer. As shown in Figure below, metal tabs are attached to the anode and cathode plates, and the assembly is wound into a cylindrical section. The tabs are welded to aluminum terminals installed in a header (top). The section-header assembly is immersed in a bath of hot capacitor electrolyte (significantly different from the formation process electrolyte). In what is called the impregnation process, a vacuum is applied to the electrolyte and sections, causing electrolyte to be drawn into the sections, thoroughly wetting the sections. The sections are placed in aluminum cans, and the headers are sealed to the cans. The capacitor units are slowly brought up to maximum rated voltage at maximum rated temperature during the aging process. The aging process grows oxide on areas on the anode foil which have an insufficient oxide barrier, such as slit edges and places which have been cracked during the winding operation. Inspections and tests occur at several stages of the production process.

Suntan How do Run Capacitors work?

A capacitor, also known as a condenser, is a component in electronic devices. It consists of a combination of three objects. First, a pair of objects called conductors conducts electricity. The conductors are separated by a dielectric, which is a substance that does not conduct electricity. Common dielectrics include substances such as paper, ceramic and plastic.

When an electric current exists between the two conductors, it creates an electric field in the dielectric, which can then store energy. The most effective capacitors employ conductors that are wide and flat, as well as being perfectly parallel, with a very small distance between them.

A run capacitor is a particular type of capacitor. A run capacitor uses the charge stored in the dielectric in order to boost the electrical current providing power to an electric motor. This type of capacitor is created to maintain a charge during constant use of the motor. These capacitors are often found in devices, such as heaters, that are continuously running.

One variety of run capacitor is often used in air conditioners. This type of run capacitor is called a dual run capacitor, and uses two run capacitors for two different functions. In an air conditioner, for example, one run capacitor is used to boost the fan motor, and another is used to boost the compressor motor.

Run capacitors typically are classified at 370 or 440 volts. It is necessary to ensure that the correct rating of run capacitor is installed in an engine. If a run capacitor with an incorrect voltage rating is installed in a motor that requires a capacitor for second-phase energy, it will throw off the magnetic field. An uneven magnetic field will cause the rotor to slow in the uneven spots, which increases energy noise, as well as power consumption, and can also cause performance problems and overheating issues.

Suntan Manufacture of a Ball Grid Array Packaging

The manufacture begins with the basic circuit board, primed and printed. This printed circuit board for BGA has pads made of copper and these are arranged in the grid pattern that the solder balls are designed to have.

After the solder balls have been precisely arranged on the surface of the printed circuit board, the soldering process would begin. Surface mount soldering would proceed through reflow soldering (with the aid of a reflow oven that uses infrared or vapors as the heat source). At this point, the metal alloy balls would melt due to extreme temperatures. As the whole assembly cools, the solder balls will solidify and the package will become firmly affixed to the circuit board.

Suntan Ball Grid Array Versus Pin Grid Array

Suntan Technology Company Limited
----All Kinds of Capacitors

There is one other common packaging for integrated circuits and this is the PGA or Pin Grid Array. The BGA looks physically similar to a Pin Grid Array package. Both are one-sided; that is, only one face of the semi-conducting substrate is used for printing and mounting of circuit components. Moreover, both have an obvious grid-like pattern. However, the Pin Grid Array uses pins - thus, the name - whereas the BGA uses balls - as it has already been mentioned above. The pins (in the PGA) or the balls (in the BGA) are the materials through which electricity is conducted between the printed surface of the semiconductor board and the surface-mounted circuit components.

Suntan Round Trimming Potentiometers

Round Trimming Potentiometers Features

(Single Turn/ Cermet/ Industrial)
(2 Terminal S tyles)

Round Trimming Potentiometers Electrical Characteristics

Standard Resistance Range 10Ω - 2MΩ
Resistance Tolerance ±30% std
Absolute Minimum Resistance 1% max (≤2K=30Ω)
Contact Resistance Variation 3% max
Resistance Essentially infinite
Adjustment Angle 235° nom

Round Trimming Potentiometers Contact

Fax #: 852 8208 6246
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Suntan Trimmer (electronics)

A trimmer is a miniature adjustable electrical component. It is meant to be set correctly when installed in some device, and never seen or adjusted by the device's user. Trimmers can be variable resistors (potentiometers) or variable capacitors. They are common in precision circuitry like A/V components, and may need to be adjusted when the equipment is serviced. Unlike other variable controls, trimmers are mounted directly on circuit boards, turned with a small screwdriver and rated for many fewer adjustments over their lifetime. In 1952, Marlan Bourns patented the world's first trimming potentiometer, trademarked "Trimpot".

Suntan Polyester Film Capacitors

This capacitor uses thin polyester film as the dielectric.

They are not high tolerance, but they are cheap and handy. Their tolerance is about ±5% to ±10%.

From the left in the photograph
Capacitance: 0.001 µF (printed with 001K)
[the width 5 mm, the height 10 mm, the thickness 2 mm]
Capacitance: 0.1 µF (printed with 104K)
[the width 10 mm, the height 11 mm, the thickness 5mm]
Capacitance: 0.22 µF (printed with .22K)
[the width 13 mm, the height 18 mm, the thickness 7mm]

Care must be taken, because different manufacturers use different methods to denote the capacitance values.

Starting from the left
Capacitance: 0.0047 µF (printed with 472K)
[the width 4mm, the height 6mm, the thickness 2mm]
Capacitance: 0.0068 µF (printed with 682K)
[the width 4mm, the height 6mm, the thickness 2mm]
Capacitance: 0.47 µF (printed with 474K)
[the width 11mm, the height 14mm, the thickness 7mm]

These capacitors have no polarity.

Suntan Electric Double Layer Capacitors (Super Capacitors)

This is a "Super Capacitor," which is quite a wonder.
The capacitance is 0.47 F (470,000 µF).
I have not used this capacitor in an actual circuit.

Care must be taken when using a capacitor with such a large capacitance in power supply circuits, etc. The rectifier in the circuit can be destroyed by a huge rush of current when the capacitor is empty. For a brief moment, the capacitor is more like a short circuit. A protection circuit needs to be set up.

The size is small in spite of capacitance. Physically, the diameter is 21 mm, the height is 11 mm.

Care is necessary, because these devices do have polarity.

Suntan How Capacitors Work

In a way, a capacitor is a little like a battery. Although they work in completely different ways, capacitors and batteries both store electrical energy. If you have read How Batteries Work, then you know that a battery has two terminals. Inside the battery, chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons on the other terminal. A capacitor is much simpler than a battery, as it can't produce new electrons -- it only stores them.

In this article, we'll learn exactly what a capacitor is, what it does and how it's used in electronics. We'll also look at the history of the capacitor and how several people helped shape its progress.

Inside the capacitor, the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance, or dielectric. You can easily make a capacitor from two pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. It won't be a particularly good capacitor in terms of its storage capacity, but it will work.

In theory, the dielectric can be any non-conductive substance. However, for practical applications, specific materials are used that best suit the capacitor's function. Mica, ceramic, cellulose, porcelain, Mylar, Teflon and even air are some of the non-conductive materials used. The dielectric dictates what kind of capacitor it is and for what it is best suited. Depending on the size and type of dielectric, some capacitors are better for high frequency uses, while some are better for high voltage applications. Capacitors can be manufactured to serve any purpose, from the smallest plastic capacitor in your calculator, to an ultra capacitor that can power a commuter bus. NASA uses glass capacitors to help wake up the space shuttle's circuitry and help deploy space probes. Here are some of the various types of capacitors and how they are used.

Air - Often used in radio tuning circuits
Mylar - Most commonly used for timer circuits like clocks, alarms and counters
Glass - Good for high voltage applications
Ceramic - Used for high frequency purposes like antennas, X-ray and MRI machines
Super capacitor - Powers electric and hybrid cars

In the next section, we'll take a closer look at exactly how capacitors work.